How The Internet Changes Your Brain

When I was younger, I could sit and read for hours. I still remember getting Harry Potter and The Order of The Phoenix and reading the 800 or so pages in one sitting.

Fast forward a few years to my freshman year of college and this ability was completely gone. I remember struggling to get through just 30 pages of reading that I had to do for my sociology class. My mind would be swimming by the time I got to the end of a page and after finishing a paragraph, it seemed like I had already forgotten what I had just read.

What was happening?

At first I thought that the college material I was trying to get through was just a lot harder than what I read as a kid. But that wasn’t it. That winter break I picked up the same tattered copy of Harry Potter I had read so many years ago.

I could barely read it for half an hour without my brain feeling like it hit a wall.

It wasn’t just my ability to read either. Other things had changed too. As a kid I was a great student. I was always reading books and learning new things. I had a fascination for the world around me and I loved to build things with my hands.

As I had gotten older I had slowly started spending more time on the internet and my old interests started to fade. It started with AOL instant messenger. Then playing video games with my friends. Finally to the point where I was just surfing Facebook and random websites in college.

I never made any connections with my internet use and the other changes I had experienced. Until one day it finally clicked. My best friend from college gave me a copy of The Shallows by Nicholas Carr. With each page I turned came the dawning realization. The world around me was still the same. It was my brain that had changed…

I knew that it wasn’t just me either, I saw the effects in everyone else around me. I would go around giving my copy of The Shallows to everyone I knew. Then I realized the irony of the situation. For my friends to know why they couldn’t read books anymore…they had to read a book, which they didn’t have the attention span to actually do.

I decided that I would type up a short summary of what I learned so that people could understand the basics. Then once they had learned enough to reset their attention spans, they could read the books on their own time. So enough chit chat. Let’s dive in.

Part 1: Neuroplasticity

Scientists used to think that our brains were fixed and unchangeable. They thought that brain development was like pouring concrete into a mold. Once it solidified, it was set like that for the rest of your life.

Now we know that the brain can change. This concept is called neuroplasticity.


the capacity of neurons and neural networks in the brain to change their connections and behaviour in response to new information, sensory stimulation, development, damage, or dysfunction.

via the Encylopedia Brittanica

For NoSurf, we can simplify and adapt neuroplasticity into:

Our brains will physically change and adapt to the habits we perform every single day. As a result our cognitive abilities, personality traits, and emotional states can all change depending on our habits.

This concept of neuroplasticity should be exciting to you. It means that if you’re currently someone who can’t focus, procrastinates, or doesn’t feel that smart in general, it doesn’t mean that your stuck this way forever. Your brain can improve and get better!

But before it can do that, you have to cut out the bad habits that are causing these issues. The bad habits like social media, gaming, news, and pornography.

If you’ve been doing those things for a while, you might’ve the following changes:

1. A reduced ability to focus and pay attention to things
2. Increased boredom or procrastination leading to mindless surfing
3. A reduced ability to feel motivated and excited for non internet based activities

These changes are simply the result of repeated interactions with the internet.

So How Does The Internet Change Our Brains?

The Net delivers precisely the kind of sensory and cognitive stimuli – repetitive, intensive, “interactive, addictive – that have been shown to result in strong and rapid alterations in brain circuits and functions. – Nicholas Carr, The Shallows

We can assume that the neural circuits devoted to scanning, skimming and multitasking are expanding and strengthening, while those used for reading and thinking deeply, with sustained concentration, are weakening or eroding. – Nicholas Carr, The Shallows

When we browse social media or similar sites we get continuously bombarded with memes, clickbait, and gaudy advertising. Our brains become molded to information that arrives in 140 character tweets, 10 second snap stories, and instagram posts.

We start to form neural pathways that allow us to multitask, jump quickly from one piece of information to the next, and skim through lots of material without really retaining any of it.

These adaptations come at a cost. While these new pathways for internet use develop and strengthen, old ones start to fade. We become scatterbrained, frenzied, and continuously distracted. The parts of our mind responsible for deep focus and sustained attention atrophy and weaken.

Key takeaway:

Our minds melt and we turn into screen zombies starved for dopamine.

Part 2: Dopamine

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that makes us feel motivated to do things. Dopamine is what gets us off the couch to study for our final exams. It’s also what makes us pull out our phones to check Instagram.

Dopamine is the driver behind the pursuit of all rewards. These rewards can be positive ones:

  • pursuing our college degree
  • training for a marathon
  • asking someone out on a date

but they can also be negative ones:

  • eating junk food
  • surfing social media
  • playing hours of video games

For most of history the things that released dopamine were physical and tangible. With the internet, we’ve found that just pixels on a screen are enough to light up our hunter gatherer brains and deliver hit after hit of dopamine.

Because our philosophy on internet use is pragmatic, our suggestions are to focus on avoiding the most serious offenders first. The platforms on the internet that cause the most dopamine release are below. You can think of these as the mental equivalent of eating KFC, McDonalds, and Taco Bell everyday.

Social media platforms like:

  • Snapchat
  • Twitter
  • Instagram
  • Facebook

Video games (some games are much worse than others):

  • World of Warcraft
  • Hearthstone
  • League of Legends
  • Overwatch


  • YouTube
  • Clickbait sites
  • Pornography
  • GIFS/Memes sites

Dopamine Desensitization And Stimulation Threshold

Note: This is a theory I formulated from reading a few books in this area, most notably Irresistible by Adam Alter.

Eating processed food everyday leads to obesity. What would happen if you consumed social media, video games, porn and other crap everyday? Is there a mental equivalent of obesity? Yes it leads to something called dopamine desensitization.

When our brains feel the effects of dopamine over and over again, they become desensitized to its effects. This means that overtime we will need more and more dopamine to get the same effects (motivation, excitement, passion, drive) as we once did. This makes it harder and harder for us to pursue the more difficult and positive rewards of life rather than the default to what’s easiest and makes us feel good in the short term.

This is because when we become desensitized to dopamine our stimulation threshold for performing activities increases higher and higher.

Stimulation threshold:

How stimulating (in terms of dopamine release) an activity has to be for you to find it enjoyable.

If your stimulation threshold is high, it means that other activities in your life will start to pale in comparison to the internet. These activities don’t release as much dopamine and can’t compete in terms of stimulation. So no matter how hard you try you’ll feel a lack of interest, procrastination, or low motivation to start things.

The way to make real life exciting and interesting again, is to reduce the constant flood of dopamine to your brain. Once this happens, your brain starts to rewire, literally growing new dopamine receptors. Overtime your stimulation threshold will reset back down to healthy and normal levels. Afterwards you will be able to read a book for hours, sit silently in meditation, and feel motivated for your academic and professional work again.


I wrote this post so that I could share some of what I learned with members of our community. The point isn’t to fear monger or suggest that we become luddites. It’s to raise awareness of a widespread issue in society and empower people to make their own decisions of what to do. I do hope that reading it has inspired you to change, to some degree, the way that you use the internet. If the material interests you, I highly suggest going further and reading Nicholas Carr’s book. I hope that it will change your life, the way it has changed mine.


  • Started reading The Shallows on the advice of this blog and it is really fantastic. Incredibly eye-opening to read his explanation of the brain changing to accommodate rapid information intake and realizing that’s exactly what had happened to me. Like you, I could read for hours as a kid, and it wasn’t until I got into this NoSurf stuff that I even realized I’d lost the ability to do so. I always chalked it up to getting older and “not liking books”. My internet addiction screwed me in college (not trying to deflect blame, I understand that is is all on me) but I want to beat it now so I can be successful professionally.

    • Yeah I wish I had made the connection sooner. I sometimes wonder how much better my grades would have been in late high school and early college if I hadn’t been on the internet all the time. I realize these kinds of reflections are pointless and on some level I now think it was a good thing that it happened. Having wasted so much time in my youth, I really recognize it’s value now that I’m older.

      In your case, the past experiences of screwing up in college might be what drive you to have an excellent professional career. So it’s great that you started reading The Shallows. The ideas will definitely have a positive impact on your work. Good luck man!

      • “I sometimes wonder how much better my grades would have been in late high school and early college if I hadn’t been on the internet all the time.”

        I’m thinking that regularly… every month… sometimes I got almost tears of that thought.

        • Yeah it’s tough looking back and then thinking about what you could’ve done with all that time. It might be helpful to realize that your projections are just a hypothetical fantasy. After all, you might’ve been not allowed to use the internet growing up and then became addicted as an adult which might be even worse. At least you’ve recognized the problem now and can take steps to ensure that you waste no more time.

          It’s also important to realize that we only value things that are scarce. It’s only because you wasted so much time in the past that you can now realize how valuable it is and have the motivation to seize the opportunity present in every hour from here on.

  • Humanity is apparently growing up from its infancy. Love this site!

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  • Nik, thank you so much for your articles. I have read every single one of them since I found NoSurf, this is exactly what I have been thinking and have craved to read. I finally know my feelings are real and I am not broken but internet addiction is real and it is really messing with our brains and even society! Your articles are the best. I am really doing my best with NoSurf atm. I want to stop.

    The funny thing is, I am ex-drug user who has been sober for five years now. But quitting (the overuse of) internet is no joke.

    • Thanks Wolf, that means a lot! Internet addiction is very real and can be tough to overcome– but not impossible. We’ll be adding more resources to this site over the next few months so that people can get the information they need to recover.

      Congrats on being sober! Quite coincidentally I am approaching five years sober too 🙂

  • Mot a grammar Nazi or anything but Internet is capital. So many people make this mistake.

  • Kimberly Robinson

    Reading this, I realize how online “retail therapy” is connected to this dopamine response. I don’t think it is a coincidence that while I have been on a break from Facebook and Instagram just since 15 November I’ve managed to put $650 in savings. I feel like mindless surfing and mindless consumption are very much related.

  • This was very insightful! I started avidly reading five years ago and would literally read all day long and sometimes not sleep to complete a book. Back then I since I was reading so much I was hardy on the internet and was finishing multiple 400+ page books in a week. But then I got in a reading slump in 2016 and because I wasn’t reading as much I started watching YouTube more and more. What use to be probably 2ish hours turned into spending the whole day on the Internet mostly YouTube. When I finally wanted to read again the most I could finish was 80 pages before I got bored never picked the book up again and went back online.

    For three years I’ve been trying to read again because I really want to but it’s so hard to finish even half a book. I never thought it may be because I spend so much time on the internet but that’s probably it. Just thinking about it even when I do pick up a book and intend to read it for hours I always have to have my computer on in case I lose interest which usually happens every 30 mins I’m reading and I’ll have to take a “break” to watch YouTube and then won’t pick the book up for another couple of hours.

    Right now usually I literally spend my whole say online. From the moment I wake up I’m online and from the moment I go to sleep which is usually around 2 and 4am I’m online. Just thinking about it makes me realize I probably have a problem. I’m really gonna try hard to wing myself off. Ever since I got this obsessed with the internet I’ve been getting more and more depressed I really want to get my life back on track.

    • Are you me? Haha, that’s exactly what I’m going through. I’m ashamed of it but I spend 12 hours a day on my phone. I don’t know how I manage to do that with work and university.

      I really hope to get my life back on track too. Let alone books, I can’t even watch movies anymore.

      Good luck to you!

  • Damn… I’m nearing 24 and just starting to realize how deep I am into internet addiction. For so long, I have felt terribly confused about why I felt so depressed, unmotivated, and experience starved. I’ve always felt like I needed super intense experiences to feel stimulated. Now I’m realizing the combination of social media, gaming, and entertainment sites like Reddit have totally kneecapped my ability to focus, know what I want for myself, and connect with others. Sadly, this behavior started when I was young, when we didn’t know how using the internet would affect our dopamine sensitivity. Now, as a college graduate, I cringe at all that I could have achieved, the friends and relationships I could’ve had, and the life I missed out because I was so addicted to the internet. I feel betrayed and used by internet companies – as a computer science major, I will never work for a company that capitalizes upon desensitizing people to dopamine for advertising monetization.

    Thanks for the great post Nik, it was really helpful and well written. I’ll check out The Shallows too. My internet addiction stops now!

  • It would be nice if monitors would let us desaturate the colors a bit. I’m typing this on a MacBook Pro and I’ve tried but all I can do is complete grayscale. It does make a difference, but I just can’t go that far.

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